Churches of Berlin
Berliner Dom ( Berlin Cathedral)
The Berliner Dom (Berlin Cathedral) is located on Museum Island on the Spree River. The Cathedral was designed by Julius Raschdorff in Neo-Baroque style and was constructed between 1894 -1905. It replaced the original Berliner Dom that was built in 1750 on the site of a Dominican church.
During World War II the Cathedral was severely damaged after being hit by a bomb. Reconstruction began in 1975 and was eventually completed in 1993 with the original design being modified into a simplified form.
The domes are made from copper and the central dome is 98m high. The church interior was designed by Julius Raschdorff. The main altar was designed by Friedrich August Stuler and was from the Original Berliner Dom and dates from 1820. The Cathedral's organ was made by Wilhelm Sauer and contains over 7,200 pipes.
Deutscher Dom (German Cathedral)
The Deutscher Dom (German Cathedral) is in the Gendarmenmarkt, a 17th century market square. The Cathedral was designed by Martin Grunberg and built by Giovanni Simonetti in 1708. The Cathedral is an old German Protestant-Reformed church. The dome covered tower that was erected in 1785 is identical to the Franzosischer Dom (French Cathedral) that is at the other end of the square. The church was burnt down in 1945 at the end of World War II and rebuilt in 1993.
The ruins are all that remain of the gothic Franciscan church that was built in c.1250 by Franciscan friars. Prior to its damage during World War II the church and friary had survived for centuries relatively unchanged. Protestants took over the church in the 16th century during Reformation, when the religious ideas of Martin Luther (1483-1546) spread throughout the regions. Protestantism was adopted by the Elector, Joachim II Hector, in 1539.
The friary later became a famous grammar school whose pupils included Otto Von Bismark (German Chancellor) and Karl Friedrich Schinkel (German Architect).
The Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedachtniskirche or Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church was designed by Franz Schewechten in 1895. It was built by Kaiser Wilhelm II in honour of his grandfather Kaiser Wilhelm I. The Neo-Romanesque church was hit by bombs during World War II leaving only the west tower standing. Even though the tower was damaged it was saved from demolition by local opposition. In 1961 a new church was designed by Egon Eimann and built next to the tower. On the arches and walls inside the church are some surviving mosaics and reliefs.
The 13th century Nickolaikirche is the oldest church in Berlin and was built around 1230. A presbytery was added in 1402 and the two towers in 1877. The church was destroyed in 1945 (during World War II) and was completely rebuilt in 1987.